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U.S. EPA Reg. No. 070087-1: U.S. EPA Est. No. 070087-AZ-001

 

Zoonocide® is a clear, colorless, antimicrobial solution containing the active ingredient in an aquous solution. It contains no thickeners, stabilizers, colorants, dyes, fragrances or additives. It is non-toxic, non-mutagenic, non-teratogenic and non-allergenic. It is non-oxidative and is therefore safe for application to a wide variety of surfaces and materials including fabrics, carpet, upholstery, drapes, linens, wood, plastics, stone, porcelain and metals. It contains no chlorine and on microbial interaction will not produce halogenated by-products of disinfection such as carcinogenic trihalomathanes. Application to surfaces produces an invisible, transparent and durable antimicrobial film that will not transfer on contact with other surfaces and is non-leaching on contact with water or solvents. Once applied, the bonded antimicrobial film is nonvolatile, odorless, and colorless and produces no chemical vapors.

 

Zoonocide is approved by the EPA for the following uses in commercial applicators and in homeowners in residential settings. Zoonocide is a durable coating that inhibits the growth of odor causing bacteria, bacteria which cause staining and discoloration, fungi (mold and mildew), and algae on a variety of surfaces, including air filters and air filter materials for furnaces, air conditioners, air purification devices, automobiles, and recirculating air handling systems; aquarium filters and filter materials, composed of sand and zeolite; sheets, blankets and bedspreads; polyurethane foam for household, industrial, and institutional sponges and mops; shoe insoles, athletic and casual shoes; carpets and draperies; vinyl wallpaper for nonfood contact washable walls; roofing materials-defined as shingles, roofing granules, wood shakes, felt, stone and synthetic overcoats; commercial and residential interior wood framing and interior new construction materials composed of wood, wood products and wood composites , including flake board (OSB), plywood , wallboard, particle board and cardboard. Test staning and color-fastness of fabrics by treating and drying a small concentrated area prior to application. Do not apply to food contact surfaces.

 

Method of Antimicrobial Inactivation:

Zoonocide inactivates and kills pathogens through the process of lyses, wherein contact of the pathogens cellular wall with the Zoonocide film produces cellular wall disruption. The contacting cellular wall is broken or ruptured and the microbe is no longer able to control its internal hydrostatic pressure, resulting in implosion or explosion of the species, depending on ambient pressure. No transfer of chemical or chemical residues occurs during this process. The Zoonocide film is not depleted and will continue to lyses cells. There is no increased pathogen resistance to Zoonocide on subsequent exposure and no increased mutagenicity.

 

Efficacy Data Summary:

Zoonocide is a true broad-spectrum antimicrobial material. Independent testing has demonstrated elimination and inactivation of the following pathogen classes in <3 minutes including mortality resistant pathogenic waterborne solutions.

 

Bacteria:

            Gram Positive Bacteria, Gram Negative Bacteria.

Fungi:

            All types, including molds, spores and yeasts.

 

 

 

METHOD OF MICROBIAL DESTRUCTION AND INACTIVATION:

 

VIDEO 1:

The attached video illustrates the lysitic destruction of pathogens which occurs on microbial contact with surfaces treated with Zoonocide. (See Graph 1).

 

Click to Play

 

ZOONOCIDE APPLICATIONS AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESULTS:
 
 
Zoonocide is a water-soluble monomer in solution that converts on application and drying to a bonded polymeric, insoluble surface film. An unexpected benefit to the binding of the active ingredient in Zoonocide to a wide variety of substrates is the great increase in spectrum of antiviral, antibacterial and fungal killing power.
 
 
 
 
Zoonocide offers the following features and benefits:
  • Treatment imparts good durability, broad spectrum, biostatic activity to the surface of a wide variety of substrates
  • It is leach resistant, nonmigrating and not consumed by microorganisms
  • Effective against gram positive and gram negative bacteria, fungi, algae, yeasts and viruses
  • Durable antimicrobial surfaces can be attained using Zoonocide.
  • Prevents discoloration and deterioration caused by bacteria, fungi, algae and mold
  • Inhibits the growth of odor causing bacteria and mildew
  • Prolongs the life of an article by inhibiting  the growth of bacteria and mildew
  • Provides a treatment that is not destroyed by repeated cleaning or washing
  • Resists odors through chemical protection rather than masking or trapping
  • Provides hygienic freshness
  • Compatible with all substrates listed under approved uses

 

Following are the results of various studies selected to demonstrate the effectiveness of Zoonocide treatment as illustrated by antimicrobial reductions of pathogens produced by the Zoonocide active ingredient on selected items and articles.

 

CARPET APPLICATIONS

Comparison of carpets treated with Zoonocide active material vs. untreated

 

 

TABLE A

Antifungal Activity on Shampooed, Treated and Untreated Nylon Carpet

(Twelve -Week Tropical Chamber Exposure)

 

Percent Covered by Fungi at No. of Weeks Exposure*

 

Sample                                  1 Week           6 Weeks            12 Weeks

Nylon Control/Untreated

Unwashed, No Shampooing        100                  100                     100

7 Shampoo Cycles                     100                  100                     100

14 Shampoo Cycles                   100                  100                     100

21 Shampoo Cycles                   100                  100                     100

 

Nylon/Treated

Unwashed, No Shampooing         0                     0                         0

7 Shampoo Cycles                      0                     0                         0

14 Shampoo Cycles                    0                     0                         0

21 Shampoo Cycles                    0                     0                         0

 

*Samples were rechallenged with a spore suspension of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium variable at 3, 6 and 9 weeks of the study. Cleaning agents used were Fiber Fresh, Woolite.

 

 

TABLE B

 

Bacterial Adaptation Studies on Treated/Untreated Carpet

Percentage Reduction (Shake Flask Test)

 

                          Klebsiella Pneumoniae                          Staphylococcus aureus

Exposure*       1        2          3        4       5       1        2        3        4        5

Untreated

Nylon Carpet   0         0         0        0       0      10        5        9       13      26

Treated

Nylon Carpet  99.8     99.6     98.8    97.5   99.9  98.6   97.5    96.3   99.4   98.8

 

* Shake Flask Survivors were used for subsequent exposures

 

 

Reduction of Airborne Contamination Resulting from Zoonocide  Carpet Treatment

 

Building reported illness (BRI) and sick building syndrome (SBS) have been attributed to a wide array of airborne allergens, irritants, infectives and toxicants in the non-industrial workplace. Airborne transmission of respiratory infections has been demonstrated for bacteria, fungi and viruses. Hypersensitivity resulting from exposure to airborne mold and fungi is very well known. Although perceived to be an outdoor seasonal event, airborne mold spores, metabolites and fragments are also present in buildings in high levels as evidenced by the decrease in symptoms of persons occupying those buildings when moved away from the contaminated environments. Carpeting contains much higher counts of microfungal contamination (as contained in dust particles) than dust from bare floors. Reduction of fungal contamination with zoonocide application in carpeted areas will therefore provide a safer, healthier environment for occupants.

 

 

The following GRAPH E is a graphic representation of the foregoing results. The pre and post counts for airborne fungal contamination indicate reduction averages between 71 to 98%.

 

 

 

AVERAGE REDUCTION IN FUNGAL COUNTS/SITE

FOLLOWING TREATMENT

 

Site                   1      2     3      4        5      6      7      8      9     10

 

% Reduction      87    71    98    95.5   85     83    89    85     88    83

 

# Sample Sites  50    29    33    45      20     47    14    30     20    15     

 

Carpet treated with Zoonocide® offers the following benifits:

 

  • The treatment is durable and resistant to repeated washing, cleaning and shampooing of the carpet. (Tables A &B)
  • It has a broad spectrum of biological activity as bacteria and are killed and rendered incapable of increasing in numbers when they contact the treated surfaces (Table C).
  • It is safe for humans, pets and the environment when used as directed.
  • Clinical evaluations demonstrate that treatment will effectively reduce and inhibit growth of odor causing bacteria.
  • Bacteria are incapable of adapting to the presence of Zoonocide antimicrobial product on treated surfaces (Table D). Bacteria will not develop “drug resistance”.
  • Fungal contamination is eliminated or greatly reduced following treatment of carpets and rugs.
  • Airborne fungal contamination from carpet infestation is reduced to nearly insignificant levels after treatment. (Table E).
  • A combination of carpet treatment and HVAC treatments with Zoonocide would be expected to almost completely eliminate bacterial and fungal infestations in enclosed, treated areas.
  •  Zoonocide treatments are not consumed by microorganisms and therefore provide durable, long lasting antimicrobial protection.
  • Treatments produce an antimicrobial coating on carpets that bonds to the carpet fibers and is not removed by washing, cleaning or shampooing.
  • Cleaning and shampooing of Zoonocide treated carpets and rugs with commercial cleaners and shampoos does not significantly reduce the antimicrobial effectiveness of the treatment.
  • Zoonocide provides an odorless, colorless, invisible antimicrobial treatment for carpeting and rugs.
  • Zoonocide is a water-based solution that contains no additives, stabilizers, colorants or fragrances to diminish its activity or add environmental pollutants during application.

ANTIMICROBIAL TREATMENT FOR FABRICS AND TEXTILES

 

Treatment of textiles and fabrics with Zoonocide followed by thorough drying to bond the Zoonocide active agent to the material produces a durable, antimicrobial coating, called a finish, to the fabric. The bonded finish protects against odor causing bacteria, mildew and mold which can cause deterioration and discoloration of the material.

Zoonocide is effective against a broad spectrum of bacteria. Odor causing bacteria commonly found in fabrics and apparel such as sheeting, hosiery, outerwear, underwear non-woven fabrics, etc. are effectively reduced by treated fabrics.

 

 

 

ACTIVITY AGAINST BACTERIA AND FUNGI

 

When Zoonocide is applied to hard surfaces and dried, a durable antimicrobial film is imparted to the surface that is not partitioned (leached) into water and to produce harmful environmental effects. The film is effective against a wide variety of organisms that are contained in and solvated by water molecules. While it is known that the antimicrobial action of Zoonocide treated surfaces is exhibited on contact in the presence of moisture, the effectiveness of the treated surface against diluted pathogens was not previously determined. To demonstrate the effectiveness and rapid antimicrobial activity of the treated surfaces, the following studies were performed.23

 

To determine efficacy of treatment on different hard, nonporous substrates, granite, garnet, sand, zeolites, gravel and marble were spray treated with Zoonocide and dried. Chemical testing confirmed all substrates to have a substantial, uniform coating of Zoonocide active material. As all substrates are siliceous materials, zeolites were chosen to be utilized in the studies. Testing was conducted on 3 separate test stations with three challenges per station to determine average microbial reductions.

 

 

Bacteria

Three independent challenge tests for each of three separate test apparatus for each of the bacteria, Klebsiella terriena and E. coli, were performed using dilute solutions of the test microbes passed over treated substrates for a total contact time of <3 minutes/challenge. Samples of the water after contact with the treated substrates were collected and examined using membrane filtration (0.45 micron) techniques. Results are reported in the following table.

 

 

MOLD & FUNGAL REMEDIATION AND PREVENTION

 

Water damage, warm, damp spaces and sustained high humidity are intrinsically tied to mold growth. Molds typically grow in buildings affected by water damage and have been found in homes, hospitals, schools and office buildings. It is estimated that about 50 to 100 common indoor mold types have the potential for creating health problems. Exposure to mold has been identified as a potential cause of many heath problems including asthma, sinusitis and infections. Molds play a major role in cases of sick building syndrome and related illness.

 

Modern methods of construction produce more airtight, energy efficient buildings and building materials are often composite materials containing adhesives and cellulose materials. Particle board, wall board, medium density fiberboard and paper covered gypsum are welcome sites for mold and fungi which use cellulose as their primary food source. Mold in homes and buildings are often first detected by a musty, earthy odor which is a blend of mycotoxins (fungal metabolites) and microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs). These are secondary metabolites produced by fungi and will also attract insects. Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites that pose a health risk to humans and animals. The best known mycotoxin is aflatoxins which are toxic and carcinogenic.  They are typically found on moldy corn or peanuts and ingestion causes liver failure and even death in humans and animals. Common indoor molds and their spores are airborne, much less concentrated per dose and typically do not produce such drastic effects. However, it is medically unclear when such an exposure threshold level is crossed. The most common indoor molds are Penicillium, Aspergillus, Stachyrbotrys, and Chaetomium all of which produce toxic metabolites of varying potencies.

 

Mold and fungal contamination are also very destructive to the surface and surroundings on which they grow. As they consume cellulose as a food source, surfaces on which they grow are destroyed. Staining of contacting surfaces is also a major problem commonly requiring substrate destroying bleaching agents such as bleach or peroxides to remove.

 

Resistance of Zoonocide Treated Construction Materials to Mold

The following studies demonstrate the resistance of Zoonocide treated materials utilized in construction and home remodeling to mold infestation. Various indicated items were spray treated with Zoonocide and dried following label instructions. All test samples were run in duplicate. Laboratory analysis for mold infestation was performed using a humidity chamber maintained at 90+/- 2° F and 97% humidity with an exposure time of 4 weeks. Samples were preconditioned for 4 days at 70-77° F and 50% relative humidity before exposure. Control samples were Pine Sapwood and gypsum panels. Mold cultures employed in the testing were Aureobasidium pullulans (ATCC 9348), Aspergillus niger (ATCC 6275) and Penicillium (ATCC 9849).

Samples were rated at intervals of 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks. Ratings were based on ASTM D 3274-50 using 100X magnification standards.

 

TABLE D

Resistance to Mold Growth

Ratings: 0 = No Growth 10 = Sample completely Covered 

 

Material                                 Number of weeks of exposure (Duplicate Runs Reported)

                                              1                     2                      3                      4

Drywall                                   1, 0                  2, 2                  5, 4                  3, 3

OSB Board                            0, 0                  2, 2                  3, 4                  8, 9

Plywood                                 2, 1                  5, 5                  7, 7                  9, 9

Drywall                                   0, 0                  1, 1                  2, 2                  2, 2

Douglas Fir                           0, 0                  0, 0                  0, 0                  1, 1

Cinder Block                         0, 0                  0, 0                  0, 0                  0, 0

 

Notes:

            Zoonocide is a registered trademark of Coating Systems Laboratories, Inc.

 Contact us for recent test results.