U.S. EPA Reg. No. 070087-1: U.S. EPA Est.
Zoonocide® is a clear, colorless, antimicrobial solution containing the
active ingredient in an aquous solution. It contains no thickeners, stabilizers,
colorants, dyes, fragrances or additives. It is non-toxic,
non-mutagenic, non-teratogenic and non-allergenic. It is non-oxidative and is
therefore safe for application to a wide variety of surfaces and
materials including fabrics, carpet, upholstery, drapes, linens, wood,
plastics, stone, porcelain and metals. It contains no chlorine and on
microbial interaction will not produce halogenated by-products of
disinfection such as carcinogenic trihalomathanes. Application to
surfaces produces an invisible, transparent and durable antimicrobial
film that will not transfer on contact with other surfaces and is
non-leaching on contact with water or solvents. Once applied, the bonded
antimicrobial film is nonvolatile, odorless, and colorless and produces
no chemical vapors.
Zoonocide is approved by the EPA for the following uses in commercial applicators and in homeowners in residential settings. Zoonocide is a durable coating that inhibits the growth of odor causing bacteria, bacteria which cause staining and discoloration, fungi (mold and mildew), and algae on a variety of surfaces, including air filters and air filter materials for furnaces, air conditioners, air purification devices, automobiles, and recirculating air handling systems; aquarium filters and filter materials, composed of sand and zeolite; sheets, blankets and bedspreads; polyurethane foam for household, industrial, and institutional sponges and mops; shoe insoles, athletic and casual shoes; carpets and draperies; vinyl wallpaper for nonfood contact washable walls; roofing materials-defined as shingles, roofing granules, wood shakes, felt, stone and synthetic overcoats; commercial and residential interior wood framing and interior new construction materials composed of wood, wood products and wood composites , including flake board (OSB), plywood , wallboard, particle board and cardboard. Test staning and color-fastness of fabrics by treating and drying a small concentrated area prior to application. Do not apply to food contact surfaces.
and kills pathogens through the process of lyses, wherein contact of the
pathogens cellular wall with the Zoonocide film produces cellular wall
disruption. The contacting cellular wall is broken or ruptured and the
microbe is no longer able to control its internal hydrostatic pressure,
resulting in implosion or explosion of the species, depending on ambient
pressure. No transfer of chemical or chemical residues occurs during
this process. The Zoonocide film is not depleted and will continue to
lyses cells. There is no increased pathogen resistance to Zoonocide on
subsequent exposure and no increased mutagenicity.
Zoonocide is a true
broad-spectrum antimicrobial material. Independent testing has
demonstrated elimination and inactivation of the following pathogen
classes in <3 minutes including mortality resistant pathogenic
Positive Bacteria, Gram Negative Bacteria.
including molds, spores and yeasts.
MICROBIAL DESTRUCTION AND INACTIVATION:
The attached video
illustrates the lysitic destruction of pathogens which occurs on
microbial contact with surfaces treated with Zoonocide. (See Graph 1).
Click to Play
APPLICATIONS AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESULTS:
- Zoonocide is a
water-soluble monomer in solution that converts on application and
drying to a bonded polymeric, insoluble surface film. An unexpected
benefit to the binding of the active ingredient in Zoonocide to a wide
variety of substrates is the great increase in spectrum of antiviral,
antibacterial and fungal killing power.
- Zoonocide offers the
following features and benefits:
- Treatment imparts
good durability, broad spectrum, biostatic activity to the surface
of a wide variety of substrates
- It is leach
resistant, nonmigrating and not consumed by microorganisms
- Effective against
gram positive and gram negative bacteria, fungi, algae, yeasts and
antimicrobial surfaces can be attained using Zoonocide.
discoloration and deterioration caused by bacteria, fungi, algae and
- Inhibits the
growth of odor causing bacteria and mildew
- Prolongs the life
of an article by inhibiting the growth of bacteria and mildew
- Provides a
treatment that is not destroyed by repeated cleaning or washing
- Resists odors
through chemical protection rather than masking or trapping
- Provides hygienic
- Compatible with
all substrates listed under approved uses
Following are the
results of various studies selected to demonstrate the effectiveness of
Zoonocide treatment as illustrated by antimicrobial reductions of
pathogens produced by the Zoonocide active ingredient on selected items
Comparison of carpets
treated with Zoonocide active material vs. untreated
Antifungal Activity on Shampooed, Treated
and Untreated Nylon Carpet
(Twelve -Week Tropical Chamber Exposure)
Percent Covered by Fungi at No. of Weeks
6 Weeks 12 Weeks
rechallenged with a spore suspension of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium variable at 3, 6 and 9 weeks of the study. Cleaning
agents used were Fiber Fresh, Woolite.
Bacterial Adaptation Studies on
Percentage Reduction (Shake Flask Test)
3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
0 0 0 0 0 10
5 9 13 26
Carpet 99.8 99.6 98.8 97.5 99.9
98.6 97.5 96.3 99.4 98.8
* Shake Flask Survivors
were used for subsequent exposures
Reduction of Airborne Contamination
Resulting from Zoonocide Carpet Treatment
illness (BRI) and sick building syndrome (SBS) have been attributed to a
wide array of airborne allergens, irritants, infectives and toxicants in
the non-industrial workplace. Airborne transmission of respiratory
infections has been demonstrated for bacteria, fungi and viruses.
Hypersensitivity resulting from exposure to airborne mold and fungi is
very well known. Although perceived to be an outdoor seasonal event,
airborne mold spores, metabolites and fragments are also present in
buildings in high levels as evidenced by the decrease in symptoms of
persons occupying those buildings when moved away from the contaminated
environments. Carpeting contains much higher counts of microfungal
contamination (as contained in dust particles) than dust from bare
floors. Reduction of fungal contamination with zoonocide application in carpeted areas will therefore provide a safer, healthier environment for
The following GRAPH E
is a graphic representation of the foregoing results. The pre and post
counts for airborne fungal contamination indicate reduction averages
between 71 to 98%.
AVERAGE REDUCTION IN FUNGAL
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
87 71 98 95.5 85 83 89 85 88 83
# Sample Sites
50 29 33 45 20 47 14 30 20 15
Carpet treated with Zoonocide® offers the following benifits:
- The treatment is
durable and resistant to repeated washing, cleaning and shampooing
of the carpet. (Tables A &B)
- It has a broad
spectrum of biological activity as bacteria and are killed and
rendered incapable of increasing in numbers when they contact the
treated surfaces (Table C).
- It is safe for
humans, pets and the environment when used as directed.
evaluations demonstrate that treatment will effectively reduce and
inhibit growth of odor causing bacteria.
- Bacteria are
incapable of adapting to the presence of Zoonocide antimicrobial
product on treated surfaces (Table D). Bacteria will not develop
contamination is eliminated or greatly reduced following treatment
of carpets and rugs.
- Airborne fungal
contamination from carpet infestation is reduced to nearly
insignificant levels after treatment. (Table E).
- A combination of
carpet treatment and HVAC treatments with Zoonocide would be
expected to almost completely eliminate bacterial and fungal
infestations in enclosed, treated areas.
treatments are not consumed by microorganisms and therefore provide
durable, long lasting antimicrobial protection.
- Treatments produce
an antimicrobial coating on carpets that bonds to the carpet fibers
and is not removed by washing, cleaning or shampooing.
- Cleaning and
shampooing of Zoonocide treated carpets and rugs with commercial
cleaners and shampoos does not significantly reduce the
antimicrobial effectiveness of the treatment.
- Zoonocide provides
an odorless, colorless, invisible antimicrobial treatment for
carpeting and rugs.
- Zoonocide is a
water-based solution that contains no additives, stabilizers,
colorants or fragrances to diminish its activity or add
environmental pollutants during application.
ANTIMICROBIAL TREATMENT FOR FABRICS
Treatment of textiles
and fabrics with Zoonocide followed by thorough drying to bond the
Zoonocide active agent to the material produces a durable, antimicrobial
coating, called a finish, to the fabric. The bonded finish protects
against odor causing bacteria, mildew and mold which can cause
deterioration and discoloration of the material.
Zoonocide is effective
against a broad spectrum of bacteria. Odor causing bacteria commonly
found in fabrics and apparel such as sheeting, hosiery, outerwear,
underwear non-woven fabrics, etc. are effectively reduced by treated
ACTIVITY AGAINST BACTERIA AND FUNGI
When Zoonocide is
applied to hard surfaces and dried, a durable antimicrobial film is
imparted to the surface that is not partitioned (leached) into water and
to produce harmful environmental effects. The film is effective against
a wide variety of organisms that are contained in and solvated by water
molecules. While it is known that the antimicrobial action of Zoonocide
treated surfaces is exhibited on contact in the presence of moisture,
the effectiveness of the treated surface against diluted pathogens was
not previously determined. To demonstrate the effectiveness and rapid
antimicrobial activity of the treated surfaces, the following studies
To determine efficacy
of treatment on different hard, nonporous substrates, granite, garnet,
sand, zeolites, gravel and marble were spray treated with Zoonocide and
dried. Chemical testing confirmed all substrates to have a substantial,
uniform coating of Zoonocide active material. As all substrates are
siliceous materials, zeolites were chosen to be utilized in the studies.
Testing was conducted on 3 separate test stations with three challenges
per station to determine average microbial reductions.
challenge tests for each of three separate test apparatus for each of
the bacteria, Klebsiella terriena and E. coli, were
performed using dilute solutions of the test microbes passed over
treated substrates for a total contact time of <3 minutes/challenge.
Samples of the water after contact with the treated substrates were
collected and examined using membrane filtration (0.45 micron)
techniques. Results are reported in the following table.
MOLD & FUNGAL REMEDIATION AND
Water damage, warm,
damp spaces and sustained high humidity are intrinsically tied to mold
growth. Molds typically grow in buildings affected by water damage and
have been found in homes, hospitals, schools and office buildings. It is
estimated that about 50 to 100 common indoor mold types have the
potential for creating health problems. Exposure to mold has been
identified as a potential cause of many heath problems including asthma,
sinusitis and infections. Molds play a major role in cases of sick
building syndrome and related illness.
Modern methods of
construction produce more airtight, energy efficient buildings and
building materials are often composite materials containing adhesives
and cellulose materials. Particle board, wall board, medium density
fiberboard and paper covered gypsum are welcome sites for mold and fungi
which use cellulose as their primary food source. Mold in homes and
buildings are often first detected by a musty, earthy odor which is a
blend of mycotoxins (fungal metabolites) and microbial volatile organic
compounds (MVOCs). These are secondary metabolites produced by fungi and
will also attract insects. Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites that pose a
health risk to humans and animals. The best known mycotoxin is
aflatoxins which are toxic and carcinogenic. They are typically found
on moldy corn or peanuts and ingestion causes liver failure and even
death in humans and animals. Common indoor molds and their spores are
airborne, much less concentrated per dose and typically do not produce
such drastic effects. However, it is medically unclear when such an
exposure threshold level is crossed. The most common indoor molds are
Penicillium, Aspergillus, Stachyrbotrys, and Chaetomium all of which
produce toxic metabolites of varying potencies.
Mold and fungal
contamination are also very destructive to the surface and surroundings
on which they grow. As they consume cellulose as a food source, surfaces
on which they grow are destroyed. Staining of contacting surfaces is
also a major problem commonly requiring substrate destroying bleaching
agents such as bleach or peroxides to remove.
Zoonocide Treated Construction Materials to Mold
The following studies
demonstrate the resistance of Zoonocide treated materials utilized in
construction and home remodeling to mold infestation. Various indicated
items were spray treated with Zoonocide and dried following label
instructions. All test samples were run in duplicate. Laboratory
analysis for mold infestation was performed using a humidity chamber
maintained at 90+/- 2° F and 97% humidity with an exposure time of 4
weeks. Samples were preconditioned for 4 days at 70-77° F and 50%
relative humidity before exposure. Control samples were Pine Sapwood and
gypsum panels. Mold cultures employed in the testing were Aureobasidium pullulans
(ATCC 9348), Aspergillus niger (ATCC
6275) and Penicillium (ATCC 9849).
Samples were rated at
intervals of 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks. Ratings were based on ASTM D 3274-50
using 100X magnification standards.
Resistance to Mold Growth
Ratings: 0 = No Growth 10 = Sample
of weeks of exposure (Duplicate Runs Reported)
Drywall 1, 0 2,
2 5, 4 3, 3
Board 0, 0 2,
2 3, 4 8, 9
Plywood 2, 1 5,
5 7, 7 9, 9
Drywall 0, 0 1,
1 2, 2 2, 2
Fir 0, 0 0,
0 0, 0 1, 1
Block 0, 0 0,
0 0, 0 0, 0
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